Soulé Steam Feed Works, Company History
Soule’ Steam Feed Works was founded in 1892 by inventor and industrialist George W. Soule’. The products manufactured at this factory complex mainly served the booming lumber industry. His first product, the Soule’ Rotary Steam Engine was invented and manufactured for nearly 30 years. This engine was used in sawmills to “feed the log and carriage through the sawblade” hence the name “steam feed”. Soule’ also invented the first automation used in sawmills. His automatic lumber stacker efficiently stacked lumber on carts that would transport the rough lumber to the dry kilns. The largest series of lumber stackers was installed at the Great Southern Lumber Company in Bogalusa, Louisiana in the early 1900s.
Through the years the Soule’ made very few improvements to the factory. As long as things were operating correctly, there was no real need to update the equipment used in manufacturing. The belt-driven machine shop saw one major upgrade in the 1950s when modern lathes replaced half of the belt-driven units. The company modernized the foundry in the late 1970s, but the original cupola furnace and core-making shop was left undisturbed in the building.
The company remained in the Soule’ family until July 2002. At that time, it was scheduled to be auctioned off. Jim McRae, a local businessman, hated to see this site lost and worked with Bob Soule’ to purchase the site and preserve it for future generations. McRae and a group of preservationists founded a 501(c)3 non-profit and the Soule’ site was donated to this organization to preserve and interpret it. Historic Soule’ Steam Feed Works is an industrial time capsule that allows the visitor to experience how things were made and how people worked in the early 20th century.
Greg Hatcher researched and wrote the following history in 2005 as a study for potential nominations to the National Park Service and Historic American Engineering Record.
The product line of Soulé Steam Feed Works focused on serving the lumber industry from 1892 until the mid-1950s. The products are listed below:
- Soulé Rotary Steam Engine: Patented 1896 and 1902
- Simplex Automatic Lumber Edge Stacker: Patented 1897
- Simplex Lumber Hand Stacker
- Simplex Lumber Flat Stacker: Patented 1905
- Soulé Spee-d-twin Steam Engine: Patented 1923
- Steam Operated Timber Unloader
- “St. Bernard” Saw Mill Dog
- Lumber Stacking Truck: Patented 1899
- Success Cotton Seed Huller: Patented 1899
- Soulé Single Cylinder Mechanical Log Turner
This product line was manufactured at the subject location. The company’s most successful products fulfilled the needs of the large sawmill market that boomed from 1885 until the 1930s. The building boom that started in the large U.S. cities at the end of the 19th century and continued until the Great Depression created a great demand for lumber. This demand made Soulé’s product line viable and kept the company profitable for many years.
Because steam was the only portable and dependable source of power during this period, the patented Soulé Rotary Steam Engine was used in several types of lumbering operations from 1892 until 1922. The rotary engine was used to drive a sawmill carriage or “feed” and was a dependable means for the sawmill operator to move the log into the spinning saw blade to cut the lumber. These rotary engines were also used to power winches that could drag and lift the logs onto railroad cars, wagons or into the sawmill. Ads that appeared regularly in The Tradesman through the 1890s announced, “The Soulé Steam Feed is the best on Earth, because it is the most durable and most easily controlled.” The ad further proclaimed the engine as “The quickest, simplest and cheapest, can be attached to any mill. Will save cost in one month run.” That was an extraordinary claim for a product during this period. A total of 2,300 rotary engines were built and sold across the U.S. and internationally. A few of these engines are still in operation in Australia and India. Over a period of years the Soulé rotary steam engines became known as “steam hogs” because they consumed a great amount of steam during operation. By 1905, Soulé had made another improvement in the rotary, but more efficient feeds were available. Soulé started developing a more efficient engine to operate sawmill feeds and log winches.
By 1922 the Soulé Spee-d-twin, which was a two-cylinder reciprocating steam engine, was designed and patented. This engine became the favorite feed engine among the sawmill operators due to its efficiency, power and dependability. This engine featured a unique valve that allowed the engine to have a considerable amount of control both forward and reverse. Its configuration and size allowed an easy retrofit for any Soulé rotary engine or to the friction carriage feeds that were supplied with sawmills and were often difficult to maintain. The company built and sold 4,301 of these engines between 1923 and 1984. This number does not include all the engines that were returned to the factory, rebuilt and then resold to other customers. Records indicate that some of these engines were factory rebuilt three times. Company records show the ship date, purchaser and original end-user for each and every engine built. The durable engines were sold in all 50 states and internationally. The steam “shot-gun” sawmill carriage at the larger sawmills eventually replaced the reciprocating steam feed engine. The advent of gasoline and diesel engines and electric power to operate sawmills rendered steam an energy source of the past.
The other important product patented and built by the Soulé Steam Feed Works was the automatic lumber stacking system. Lumber industry historians agree that without the automation introduced at the turn-of-the-century for the large sawmills, the steady supply of cheap, standardized lumber that fueled the building boom in America’s large cities would have not have been available.
The first Soulé Simplex Edge Stacker was placed in operation in the mill of Camp & Hinton Co., at Lumberton, Mississippi in July 1895. From the beginning, Soulé’s method was a demonstration of the practicality of this method of stacking lumber on kiln cars and carrying it in that shape through the kilns. The method he used was to stack the lumber on edge rather and stacking it flat or horizontally. Kiln-dried wood, as compared with air-dried wood, was important in both the lumber industry and the building industry. The process created dimensionally stable lumber that provided better standardization and greater quality in building practices. Soulé received a patent on the lumber-stacking machine on June 29, 1897. More than 100 of these stackers were installed in the largest sawmills in the United States. In 1919, it is estimated that 65 percent of the lumber production of this country was manufactured in a relatively few large mills, which represented less than 5 per cent of the total number of sawmills in the country according to Professor Ralph Clement Bryant in his 1922 book, “Lumber: Its Manufacture and Distribution.” Bryant also stated that 32 percent of the large mills were located in the southern states; 8 percent in the North Carolina pine region; 4 percent in West Virginia; 25 percent in the Pacific states; 12 percent in the Lake States; 4 percent in the Rocky Mountain region (Idaho and Montana); and 2 percent in New England. Thus, 44% of the large mills were located in the southeast region of the U.S. and readily serviced by Soulé. During 1919, there were 792 large mills cut more than 10 million board feet of lumber.
The original design plans for the Soulé stackers are on file in the company vault. The list of installation plans reads as the “who’s who” of large sawmills. Some of the most notable mills included the Great Southern Lumber Company in Bogalusa, Louisiana, Grays Harbor Commercial Co. in Cosmopolis, Washington and Potlatch Lumber Company in Elk River, Idaho. Both the Great Southern Lumber Company and Grays Harbor Commercial Co. issued postcards illustrating the lumber stacking systems designed and built by Soulé.
Charles Waterhouse Goodyear II, heir to the Goodyear timber company fortune, wrote the book “The Bogalusa Story”. This book relates how the Goodyear family of Buffalo, New York purchased vast amounts of timberland in the South and developed the Great Southern Lumber Company. They also built the mill town of Bogalusa, Louisiana. In the beginning they hired a seasoned lumberman, Will Sullivan, who set out to build a sawmill plant designed to output a million board feet of lumber every twenty-four hours. According to Goodyear’s account, Will Sullivan could visualize ingenious improvements in manufacturing practices that could be applied to the mechanization of lumber operations. Sullivan kept a mental blueprint of the mill in his mind supported by a notebook filled with data and sketches. The engineers who had designed mills from coast to coast offered little encouragement in building such a mill. Fortunately the Goodyear brothers believed in the plan and the mill was built. Goodyear calls this mill design the start of the machine age in the lumber industry. Mr. Sullivan told the engineers to utilize sorters and automatic stackers throughout the mill to keep handling to a minimum. The mill used the Soulé Simplex Automatic Stacker in every practical application. In April 1938 the last of the Great Southern Lumber Company's virgin timber was harvested and manufactured into lumber in the Bogalusa sawmill. After 30 years of operation the company was dissolved and the assets sold. It took nearly three years to liquidate the company. The mill was cut up and the scrap metal was sold. The destruction of this mill was a great loss considering the groundbreaking technology the mill embraced. The city of Bogalusa still exists, testament to the profitability of the lumber mill.
Other products that were manufactured and marketed by Soulé include the “St. Bernard” Saw Mill Dog, a device used on the mill’s carriage bolster. It fulfilled the sawmill owner’s need for a cheap, simple and reliable dog, which would effectively hold small logs. This allowed the mill to utilize more small logs, thereby increasing lumber productivity from the forest. At the beginning of the 20th century, log utilization was roughly 50%. Through improvements such as the Soulé Simplex Stacker and the mill dog, productivity increased until now approximately 75% of the log is utilized.
ABOUT MISSISSIPPI INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE MUSEUM
The Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum, Inc., a non-profit corporation founded in October 2002, has tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3). This organization owns the Soulé Steam Feed Works historic site. A 9-member board of directors governs the preservation and educational activities of the museum.
The factory (now museum) retains much of its original furnishings and equipment (about 80%). The Soule’ company appears to have been trapped in time – 1920 to 1945. The belt-driven machine shop has the longest operating line drive shaft (106’) in the United States. This shaft is turned by an antique three-phase electric motor and powers belt-driven machines that date back to the early 1900s.
The Soulé family operated Soulé Steam Feed Works for 110 years under founder George W. Soulé and his descendants. Mr. Soulé was a noted inventor in his day and held at least 25 U.S. patents. Most of his patents were incorporated into products that fulfilled the needs of the small to medium-sized sawmills that boomed from 1885-1930 in the South
The museum displays the company’s most noted products that were sold worldwide. Soule’ produced about 2,300 Rotary Steam Engines and 4,301 Spee-d-Twin Steam Engines. The last steam engine produced at the factory is displayed and operated in the steam demonstration room. A rare Soulé Rotary Steam Engine from the early 1900s is displayed and operated in steam engine demonstration room.
In 2005, preliminary Historic American Engineering Survey site documentation was started through a Summer Work Program Grant from the Riley Foundation. An extensive historical documentation and research project completed that same year revealed that Soulé Steam Feed Works was one of only five remaining late 19th/early 20th century foundry/machine shop/factories with original workings in the United States. This fact was quite a surprise considering that there were more than 1,000 such businesses prior to World War II. Soule’ Steam Works was truly a rare survivor of America’s industrial past. Since 2005, it has been discovered that two of these remaining sites have lost much of their original features. The Watts-Campbell Company factory site has lost its foundry and pattern shop. The roof of the machine shop and assembly area was destroyed in Hurricane Sandy. The Appomattox Iron Works in Petersburg, Virginia was damaged by a tornado in 1993. At some point afterward, the historic machinery was removed, leaving an empty building.
Now the list of comparable sites is down to three: Soule’ Steam Feed Works, W.A. Young and Son’s Foundry and Machine Shop (Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area, Rice’s Landing, Pennsylvania) and Knight Foundry and Machine Shop (Sutter Creek, California).
The Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum, located in the historic Soulé Steam Feed Works site, promotes the heritage, labor, and innovation that influenced and shaped our country's rise as an industrial and manufacturing pioneer.
A museum's vision is a guiding image of success formed in terms of its contribution to society. A description in words expresses the institution's eventual destination. As a public institution, the Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum will:
- Encourage a deep interest in the story of American industry by interpreting Mississippi's industrial heritage within the context of our Nation's history;
- Actively develop a dynamic institution providing relevant, creative exhibitions and educational programs;
- Provide an enlightening, entertaining and fun experience in an environment where visitors of all ages feel like welcomed guests;
- Support lifelong learning and inspire new generations to chart their own paths of discovery;
- Serve as a complimentary resource to industrial and cultural sites, historical organizations and educational institutions;
- Preserve and interpret the Soule Steam Feed Works site, a Mississippi Landmark and a National Register property.
Soulé Steam Feed Works site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1979 due to the historical significance of George W. Soulé, inventor.
The site was designated a Mississippi Landmark in October 2003.
Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum was designated the Official State Historical Industrial Museum in July 2004 by the Mississippi legislature.
James L. McRae, President
Mark Scarborough, Vice President
Greg Hatcher, Secretary/Treasurer
Board of Directors
James L. McRae, JLM Investments, LLC
Walter B. Clement, Retired Instructor Auburn University
Mark Scarborough, Attorney
Greg Hatcher, Mississippi Industrial Heritage Museum
Maurice Hall, Hall Timberlands
Dan Holland, Clearspan Components
David Price, Retired Minister and Railroad Hobbyist
Curt Friday, Retired Project Engineer - Weyerhauser
Mike McKnight, Engineer